A study of the day of Pentecost would also be better understood in the light of the first Pentecost during the giving of the law at Mount Sinai. The giving of the law was approximately seven weeks after the Passover that occurred in Egypt (Exo 19:1). The coming of the Holy Spirit was seven weeks after the death of Jesus. The correlation of the blood on the doorway in Egypt and the blood Christ shed on the cross need not be explored deeper here. It should suffice to say that the events in Egypt are a direct foreshadowing of the work that Christ would fulfill on the cross. Yet, the coming of God on Mount Sinai must be examined to better understand the coming of the Holy Spirit on Pentecost.
God begins His discourse with Moses by reminding him that Israel has been delivered from their oppressor and if they keep their covenant with God, then they will be a kingdom of priests (Exo 19:6). There was also a prescribed time of preparation set forth in Exodus, that parallels the time that the disciples spent in prayer, waiting on God. As we will see, the disciples remained faithful to their belief in God and God made them preachers to all nations (Acts 2:5-6). During the account in Exodus, God gives Moses the words to speak so that the people of Israel will believe forever (Exo 19:10). We see the parallel happen in the temple in Jerusalem when the disciples speak with other tongues. God the Holy Spirit gives them the words to speak so that the people may believe (Acts 2:41). The call for sanctification in Exodus 19:14 is followed by a washing. Peter’s call for repentance is followed by the commandment to be baptized (Acts 2:38).